Wildlife Protection

Wildlife and Forestry Crime: Guidance Documents

Space for Giants, with funding from Stop Ivory and The ICCF Group, has written this series of guides that can advise African authorities how they might strengthen legislation and improve prosecution and adjudication of wildlife and forestry crimes.

Countries face growing challenges applying existing laws to protect resources including productive land, wildlife, and forestry that can continue to bring people benefits only if they are sustainably and collectively managed.

Poachers, illegal loggers, trespassers and others routinely escape justice because of loopholes in old legislation, counter-productive sentencing options, or a lack of case law that might guide fresh convictions.

This suite of new advisory documents can guide authorities and policymakers as they enact and enforce stronger laws against wildlife and forestry crime. The documents draw on the insight of experienced legal practitioners in the wildlife and environmental fields.

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Drafting Wildlife Crime Offences in Legislation


Suggested wording and structure for new wildlife crime laws, building on international guidance from CITES, which monitors trade in endangered species.

Model Wildlife Crime Sentencing Guidelines 


Guidance on proportionate and consistent sentencing for various wildlife and forestry crime offences, including discussions of high minimum sentencing.

Conducting Court Surveys on Wildlife Crime


How to produce baseline research on wildlife crime cases, track ongoing trials, support prosecutions, and disseminate information.

Guidance on Eyewitness Identification Evidence


Describing identification evidence, how to take evidence from eyewitnesses, conduct identification parades, and overt and covert identification procedures.

Prosecution Standards and the Decision to Charge


The elements of successful prosecutions, including charging decisions, planning and preparing a case, trial conduct, and professional competencies.

Guidance on Mutual Legal Assistance – Botswana

How other countries can apply to the Botswana authorities for assistance with cases taking place in jurisdictions outside Botswana.

Guidance on Mutual Legal Assistance – Uganda

How other countries can apply to the Uganda authorities for assistance with cases taking place in jurisdictions outside Uganda.