Human–elephant conflict is a significant problem in Africa, undermining biodiversity conservation and development efforts.
Recorded incidence of conflict between humans and elephants, in particular crop-raiding, is increasing in rural Africa and Asia, undermining efforts to conserve biological diversity.
Conservation projects may be reluctant to attempt Systematic Conservation Planning because existing methods are often prohibitive in the time, money, data, and expertise they require.
Land outside of gazetted protected areas is increasingly seen as important to the future of elephant persistence in Africa.
Human-elephant conflict, in particular the damage caused by elephants to smallholder crops, is a major challenge to the conservation of African elephant Loxodonta africana.
African elephants face an uncertain future.
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